Terms by Chapter

Chapter 1 Vocabulary

  • Theory - hypothesis or unproved assumption
  • Archaeology - the study of past societies through an analysis of the items people left behind
  • Anthropology - the study of human life and culture based on artifacts and human fossils
  • Hominid - humans and other humanlike creatures that walk upright
  • Homo Sapiens Sapiens - “wise, wise humans,” a species that appeared in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago; they were the first anatomically modern humans
  • “out-of-Africa” theory - also called the replacement theory; this theory refers to when Homo sapiens sapiens began spreading out of Africa to other parts of the world about 100,000 years ago and replacing populations of earlier hominids in Europe and Asia
  • Survive - to remain alive or in existence
  • Revolution - a sudden, complete change
  • Systematic agriculture - the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis
  • Artisan - a skilled worker who makes products such as weapons and jewelry
  • Role - a socially expected behavior pattern  
  • Culture - the way of life a people follows
  • Civilization - a complex culture in which large numbers of people share a number of common elements such as social structure, religion, and art
  • Priests - in early urban civilizations, important and powerful people who supervised rituals aimed at pleasing gods and goddesses
  • City-state - a state with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
  • Polytheistic -  believing in many gods
  • Ziggurat - a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city
  • Theocracy - a government established by divine authority
  • Transport - the moving of goods and people  
  • Invention - a new idea, method, or device
  • Cuneiform - “wedge-shaped,” a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet

 

Chapter 2 Vocabulary

  • Major - great; significant in size or importance
  • Dynasty - a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family  
  • Pharaoh - the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarchs; the term originally meant “great house” or “palace”
  • Bureaucracy - an administrative organization that relies on non elective officials and regular procedures   
  • Physical - relating to the body
  • Hieroglyphics - “priest-carvings” or “sacred writings”; a complex system of writing that used both pictures and more abstract forms; used by the ancient Egyptians and Maya
  • Hieratic script - simplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancient Egypt for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs of everyday life
  • Pastoral nomad - a person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals  
  • Created - made or brought something new into existence
  • Domesticated - adapted to life with and to the advantage of humans
  • Technology - a manner of accomplishing a task using technical processes or knowledge
  • Monotheistic - believing in one God
  • Primary - most important
  • Monsoon - a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter
  • Aristocracy - an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is based on from one generation to another
  • Communicate - to make known or share information about
  • Dao - “Way,” the correct or divine way
  • Cycle - a series of events that recur regularly and usually lead back to the starting point
  • Filial piety - the duty of family members to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family
  • Obsidian - a dark natural glass stone formed by lava
  • Ritual - a ceremony or a rite
  • Series - a group of related things or events
  • Estimate - to make a rough determination

 

Chapter 3 Vocabulary

  • Empire - a large political state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories
  • Successor - one who follows, especially one who succeeds to a throne or an office
  • Method - a systematic plan for doing something
  • Patriarchal - dominated by men
  • Chariot - a two-wheeled horse-drawn battle cart, also used in processions and races
  • Visible - capable of being seen
  • Assume - to take up or in; to take control of
  • Expedition - a journey taken for a specific purpose
  • Remarkable - worthy or likely to be noticed; being uncommon or extraordinary
  • Sought - made an attempt; tried
  • Satrapy - one of the 20 provinces into which Darius divided the Persian Empire
  • Satrap - “protector of the Kingdom”; the governor of a province (satrapy) of the Persian Empire under Darius
  • Sustained - supported or held up
  • Monarchy - government by a sovereign ruler such as a king or queen

 

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

  • Isolate - to set apart from others
  • Debated - discussed by considering opposing viewpoints
  • Epic poem - a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer
  • Arete -  in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest
  • Polis - the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding countryside
  • Acropolis - in early Greek city-states, a fortified gathering place at the top of a hill that was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings
  • Agora - in early Greek city-states, an open area that served as a gathering place and as a market
  • Assemble - to gather; to meet together
  • Phalanx - a walk wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation
  • Imply - to express indirectly through reference or association
  • Tyrant - a ruler who seized power by force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiers and fighting tactics
  • Democracy - “the rule of many”; government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives
  • Oligarchy - “the rule of the few”; a form of government in which a select group of people exercises control
  • Helot - in ancient Sparta, a captive person who was forced to work for the conqueror
  • Ephor - one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens
  • Classical - authoritative, traditional; relating to the literature, art, architecture, and ideals of the ancient Greek and Roman world
  • Age of Pericles - the period between 461 B.C. and 429 B.C. when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of it's power
  • Direct democracy - a system of government in which the people participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings
  • Ostracism - in ancient Athens, the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote
  • Strategy - a plan or method
  • Oracle - in ancient Greece, a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess
  • Tragedy - a form of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and having a protagonist who is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a fatal flaw
  • Philosophy - an organized system of thought, from the Greek for “love of wisdom”
  • Method - a systematic plan for doing something
  • Socratic method - the method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates; it employs a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason
  • Ethics - moral principles; generally recognized rules of conduct
  • Hellenistic era - the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world
  • Subsidizing - aiding or promoting with public money
  • Founder - one who founds or establishes
  • Epicureanism - the school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure
  • Stoicism - the school of thought developed by the teacher Zeno I'm Hellenistic Athens; it says that happiness can be achieved only when people gain inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God and that people should bear whatever life offers

 

Chapter 5 Vocabulary

  • Emerge - to manifest, to rise from an obscure or inferior position or condition
  • Varnas - the name given by Aryans in ancient India to a group of people in what was believed to be an ideal social structure of four groups
  • Caste system - a set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person’s occupation and economic
  • Hinduism - the major Indian religious system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled in India after 1500 B.C.
  • Yoga - a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with Brahman
  • Reincarnation - the rebirth of an individual's soul in a different form after death
  • Process - progress, advance; a series of actions or operations leading to an end
  • Karma - in Hinduism, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
  • Dharma - in Hinduism, the Divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society
  • Buddhism - a religious doctrine introduced in northern India in the sixth century B.C. by Siddhārtha Gautama,known as the buddha, or “Enlightened One”
  • Devote - to commit by solemn act
  • Nirvana - in Buddhism, ultimate reality, the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul
  • Rigid - inflexible set in opinion
  • Conversion - the change from one belief to another
  • Welfare - something that aids or promotes well-being
  • Silk road - a route between the Roman Empire and China, so called because silk was China's most valuable product
  • Pilgrim - a person who travels to a shrine or other holy place
  • Vedas - the earliest known Indian literature, which contain religious chants and stories that were originally passed down orally from generation to generation one then recorded in Sanskrit after writing developed

 

Chapter 6 Vocabulary

  • Confucianism - the system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius forward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it was intended to help restore order to a society that was in a state of confusion
  • Philosophy - an organized system of thought, from the Greek for “love of wisdom”
  • Ethical - conforming to accepted standards of conduct; moral
  • Daoism - a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi; teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through inaction so that nature is allowed to take it's course
  • Legalism - a popular philosophy developed in China toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it proposes that human beings are evil by nature and can be brought to the correct path only by harsh laws
  • Individuality - a total character that distinguishes an individual from others
  • Ideology - a set of beliefs
  • Regime - the government in power
  • Censorate - part of the Chinese bureaucracy that made sure government officials were doing their jobs
  • Instituted - put into action
  • Civil service - the administrative service of a government, not including the armed forces, in which appointments are determined by competitive examination
  • Ensure - to make sure, certain, or safe
  • Maintain - to keep in an existing state; to preserve from failure or decline
  • Martial - relating to, or suited for, war or a warrior

 

Chapter 7 Vocabulary

  • Republic - a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
  • Virtually - almost entirely; nearly
  • Institution - an organization for the promotion of a cause
  • Patrician - a social class of wealthy, powerful landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic
  • Plebeian - in the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers
  • Consul - a chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year to run the government and to lead the army into battle
  • Praetor - an official of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law
  • Financial - relating to the management of funds
  • Instability - the quality or state of being liable to change or alteration
  • Triumvirate - a government by three people with equal power
  • Dictator - an absolute ruler
  • Imperator - commander in chief; the Latin origin of the word emperor
  • Whereas - although
  • Paterfamilias - in the Roman social structure, the dominant male head of the household, which also included his wife, sons and their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves
  • Insulae - Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete with wooden-beam floors
  • Guaranteed - assured the fulfillment of a condition

 

Chapter 8 Vocabulary

  • Procurator - in the Roman Empire, an official in charge of a province
  • Transformation - conversation;change in character or condition
  • Structure - an arrangement in a definite pattern of organization
  • Clergy - church leaders
  • Laity - regular church members
  • Military - relating to the armed forces or to soldiers, arms, or war
  • Collapse - to break down completely; to suddenly lose force or effectiveness
  • Plague - an epidemic disease
  • Inflation - a rapid increase in prices
  • Bishopric - a group of Christian communities, or parishes, under the authority of a bishop
  • Monk - a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate himself to God; monks live in monasteries headed by abbotts
  • Monasticism - practice of living the life of a monk
  • Pursue - to follow up or proceed with
  • Missionary - a person sent out to carry a religious message
  • Conversion - the change from one belief or form to another
  • Nun - a woman who separates herself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate herself to God; nuns live in convents headed by abbesses
  • Abbess - the head of a convent
  • Exclude - to bar from inclusion or participation in
  • Wergild - “money for a man”; the value of a person in money, depending on social status; in Germanic society, a fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed
  • Ordeal - a means of determining guilt in Germanic law, based on the idea of divine intervention: if the accused person was unharmed after a physical trial, he or she was presumed innocent
  • Ensure - to make sure
  • Enormous - huge; vast; immense
  • Patriarch - the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, originally appointed by the Byzantine emperor
  • Icons - pictures of religious images
  • Idolatry - the worship of religious images

 

Chapter 9 Vocabulary

  • Sheikh - the ruler of an Arabic tribe, chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders
  • Allah - Arabic for God; the supreme God of Islam
  • Revelation - a divine truth
  • Quran - the holy scriptures of the religion of Islam
  • Submission - act of submitting to the control or authority of another
  • Muslim - a person who believes in Islam
  • Hijrah - the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah in 622, which became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam
  • Bedouin - a nomadic Arab who lives in the Arabian, Syrian, or North African deserts
  • Hajj - a pilgrimage to Makkah, one of the requirements of the Five Pillars of Islam
  • Five Pillars of Islam - acts of worship every Muslim must perform; this includes belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage
  • Shari’ah - a law code drawn up by Muslim scholars after Muhammad's death; it provided believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily laws to regulate their daily lives
  • Caliph - a successor of Muhammad as spiritual and temporal leader of the Muslims
  • Jihad - “struggle in the way of God”
  • Caliphate - the office or dominion of a caliph
  • Shia - a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of the Umayyads as the true rulers of Islam
  • Complex - having many intricate parts
  • Vizier - a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim centuries
  • Sultan - “holder of power”, the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans
  • Bazaar - a covered market in Islamic cities
  • Dowry - a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride's parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife
  • Erode - to diminish or destroy by degrees
  • Commentary - an explanatory treatise
  • Astrolabe - an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the positions of stars
  • Arabesques - geometric patterns repeated over and over to completely cover a surface with decoration
  • Minaret - the tower of a mosque from which the muezzin calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
  • Muezzin - the crier who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer from the minaret of a mosque

 

Chapter 10 Vocabulary

  • Enable - to make possible
  • Feudalism - political and social order that developed during the Middle Ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
  • Vassal - under feudalism, a man who served a lord in a military capacity
  • Knight - under feudalism, a member of the heavily armored cavalry
  • Fief - under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief
  • Feudal contract - under feudalism, the unwritten rules that determined that relationship between a lord and his vassal
  • Contract - a binding agreement between two or more people or parties
  • Chivalry - in the Middle Ages, the ideal of civilized behavior that developed among the nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
  • Technology - the science or study of the practical or industrial arts; applied sciences
  • Crucial - essential; important
  • Carruca - a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare
  • Manor - in medieval Europe, an agricultural estate that a lord ran and peasants worked
  • Serf - in medieval Europe, a peasant legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord’s control
  • Bourgeoisie - the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
  • Patrician - a wealthy, powerful landowner
  • Common law - a uniform system of law that developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replaced law codes that varied from place to place
  • Challenge - a summons that is often stimulating, inciting, or threatening
  • Document - an original or official paper that gives proof of or support to
  • Magna Carta - the “Great Charter” of rights, which King John was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymede in 1215
  • Parliament - in thirteenth-century England, the representative government that emerged; it was composed of two knights from every county, two people from every town, and all the nobles and bishops throughout England
  • Estate - a social or political class

 

Chapter 11 Vocabulary

  • Period - an interval of time
  • Complexity - the state of being complex or of having many intricate parts
  • Scholar-gentry - in China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for civil service
  • Dowry - a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride's parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife
  • Khanate - one of several separate territories into which Genghis Khan’s empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons
  • Acquired - come into possession or control of
  • Neo-Confucianism - a revised form of Confucianism that evolved as a response to Buddhism and held sway in China from the late Tang dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century
  • Available - ready for immediate use; accessible
  • Vision - the way of seeing or believing
  • Porcelain - a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures
  • Archipelago - a chain of islands
  • Revenue - the yield of sources of income that a nation or state collects and deposits into its treasury for public use
  • Samurai - “those who serve;” Japanese warriors similar to the knights of medieval Europe
  • Code - a system of principles or rules
  • Bushido - “the way of the warrior;” the strict code by which Japanese samurai were supposed to live
  • Shogun - “general;” a powerful military leader in Japan
  • Daimyo - “great names;” head of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection
  • Shinto - “the Sacred Way;” or “the way of the God’s;” the Japanese state religion; among its doctrines are the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation
  • Zen - a sect of Buddhism that became popular with Japanese aristocrats and became part of the samurai’s code of behavior; under Zen Buddhism, there are different paths to enlightenment
  • Retain - to keep in possession or use
  • Theravada - “the teachings of the elders,” a school of Buddhism that developed in India; its followers view Buddhism as a way of life
  • Mahayana - a school of Buddhism that developed in northwest India, stressing the view that nirvana can be achieved through devotion to the Buddha; its followers consider the Buddha a divine figure
  • Traditional - established; customary

 

Chapter 12 Vocabulary

  • Lay investiture - the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
  • Pursue - to follow up or proceed with
  • Remove - to eliminate
  • Interdict - a decree by the pope that forbade priests from giving the sacraments of the Church to the people
  • Sacrament - a Christian rite
  • Heresy - the denial of basic Church doctrines
  • Relic - bones or other objects connected with saints; considered to be worthy of worship by the faithful
  • Crusades - military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
  • Infidel - an unbeliever; a term applied to the Muslims during the Crusades
  • Proceed - to advance or move along a course
  • Libel - a written or oral defamatory statement or representation that conveys an unjustly unfavorable impression
  • Technical - of or pertaining to a technique
  • Corporation - a business organization that has a separate legal entity with all the rights and responsibilities of an individual, including the right to buy and sell property, enter into legal contracts, and sue and be sued
  • Theology - the study of religion and God
  • Scholasticism - a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
  • Vernacular - the language of everyday speech in a particular region
  • Chanson de geste - a type of vernacular literature, this heroic epic was popular in medieval Europe and described battles and political contests
  • Period - an interval of time
  • anti-Semitism - hostility forward or discrimination against Jews
  • Consequence - the effect or result of an action
  • New monarchy - in the fifteenth century, government in which power had been centralized under a king or queen, i.e., France, England, and Spain
  • Taille - an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy

 

Chapter 13 Vocabulary

  • So-called - commonly named; popularly termed
  • Plateau - a relatively high, flat land area
  • Savanna - broad grassland dotted with small trees and shrubs
  • Lineage groups - an extended family unit that has combined into a larger community
  • Matrilineal - tracing lineage through the mother rather than the father
  • Patrilineal - tracing lineage through the father
  • Diviner - a person who is believed to have the power to foretell events
  • Founding - originating; beginning
  • Griot - a special class of African storytellers who help keep alive a people’s history
  • Factor - a contributing part
  • Administrative - relating to the execution of public affairs, as distinguished from policy making
  • Security - freedom from danger or invasion; safety  
  • Subsistence farming - the practice of growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale
  • Stateless societies - a group of independent villages organized into clans led by a local ruler or clan head without and central government

Chapter 14 Vocabulary

  • Consist - to be composed of or made up of
  • Longhouse - Iroquois house about 150 to 200 feet long built of wooden poles covered with sheets of bark and housing about a dozen families
  • Clan - a group of related families
  • Tepee - a circular tent made by stretching buffalo skins over wooden poles
  • Area - a geographic region
  • Maize - corn
  • Instruct - to teach or to train
  • Resident - one who resides in a place
  • Quipu - a system of knotted strings used by the Inca people for keeping records

 

Chapter 15 Vocabulary

  • Dominate - to influence or control
  • Mercenary - a soldier who fights primarily for pay
  • Republic - a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
  • Decline - a change to a lower state or level
  • Burgher - a member of the middle class who lived in a city or town
  • Humanism - an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the Humanities, which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history
  • Vernacular - the language of everyday speech in a particular region
  • Attain - to gain or achieve
  • Core - basic or essential part
  • Fresco - painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints
  • Perspective - artistic techniques used to give the effect of three-dimensional depth to two-dimensional surfaces   
  • Style - having a distinctive quality or form  
  • Circumstance - a determining condition

 

Chapter 16 Vocabulary

  • Christian Humanism - a movement that developed in northern Europe during the Renaissance, combining classical learning and individualism with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church
  • Fundamental - basic or essential
  • External - outward or observable
  • Salvation - the state of being saved (that is, going to heaven) through faith alone or through faith and good works
  • Indulgence - a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death
  • Valid - well-grounded or justifiable
  • Lutheranism - the religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith  
  • Publish - to print for distribution
  • Justification - process of being justified, or deemed worthy of salvation, by God  
  • Predestination - belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved (the elect) and who will be damned (the reprobate)
  • Annul - declare invalid
  • Community - a group of people with common interests and characteristics living together within a larger society  
  • Ghetto - formerly a district in a city in which Jews were required to live   

 

Chapter 17 Vocabulary

  • Overseas - beyond or across the seas  
  • Caravel - a small, fast, maneuverable ship that had a large cargo hold and usually three masts with lateen sails
  • Conquistador - a leader in the Spanish conquest of the Americas
  • Colony - a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control  
  • Culture - the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group
  • Regime - a government in power
  • Mercantilism - a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century; it held that the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver
  • Export - to send a product or service for sale to another country
  • Plantation - a large agricultural estate
  • Middle Passage - the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas
  • Peninsulare - a person born on the Iberian Peninsula; typically, a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe  
  • Creole - a person of European descent born in Latin America and living there permanently
  • Mestizo - a person of mixed European and Native American descent
  • Mulatto - a person of mixed African and European descent
  • Labor - people with all their abilities and efforts
  • Encomienda - a system of labor the Spanish used in the Americas; Spanish landowners had the right, as granted by Queen Isabella, to use Native Americans as laborers  
  • Mita - a labor system that the Spanish administrators in Peru used to draft native people to work  
  • Draft - to select for some purpose; to conscript

 

Chapter 18 Vocabulary

  • Heretic - one who does not conform to established doctrine
  • Conflict - opposition; a fight, battle, or war
  • Armada - a fleet of warships
  • Inflation - a rapid increase in prices
  • Divine right of kings - the belief that the king gets his power from God and not from his subjects
  • Puritans - English Protestants who believed that the Church of England needed further reform and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship  
  • Cavaliers - supporters of King Charles I in the English Civil War
  • Roundheads - supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War
  • Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political unit founded on law and united by agreement for and by the people
  • Restoration - a brining back to a former position or condition
  • Convert - to change from one belief to another
  • Natural rights - rights with which all humans are born, including the rights to life, liberty, and property
  • Stability - the state of being stable; strong enough to endure
  • Absolutism - a political system in which a ruler holds total power
  • Authority - power; person in command
  • Emerge - to become manifest; to become known
  • Czar - Russian for caesar; the title used by Russian emperors
  • Boyar - a Russian noble
  • Mannerism - an artistic movement that emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s; it marked the end of the Renaissance by breaking down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation
  • Decline - a change to a lower state or level  
  • Baroque - an artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements
  • Drama - a composition that tells a story, usually involving conflicts and emotions, through action and dialogue and typically designated for the theater
  • Creative - imaginative

 

Chapter 19 Vocabulary

  • Janissary - a soldier in the elite guard of the Ottoman Turks
  • Successor - one follows, especially one who takes over a throne, title, estate, or office
  • Gunpowder empire - an empire formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered through their mastery of firearms
  • Sultan - “holder of power”; the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans
  • Domain - place where one has absolute ownership of land or other property
  • Harem - “sacred place”; the private domain of an Ottoman sultan, where he and his wives resided
  • Grand vizier - the Ottoman sultan’s chief minister who carried the main burdens of the state and who led the council meetings
  • Pasha - an appointed official of the Ottoman Empire who collected taxes, maintained law and order, and was directly responsible to the sultan’s court
  • Ulema - a group of religious advisers to the Ottoman sultan; this group administered the legal system and schools for educating Muslims
  • Shah - king (used in Persia and Iran)
  • Administrator - one who manages the affairs of a government or a business
  • Conform - to adhere to rules or standards; to fit in
  • Orthodoxy - traditional beliefs, especially in religion
  • Anarchy - political disorder; lawlessness
  • Intelligent - having a high degree of understanding and mental capacity
  • Zamindar - a local official in Mongol India who received a plot of farmland for temporary use in return for collecting taxes for the central government  
  • Authority - power; person in command
  • Principle - a fundamental law or idea; when said of people (e.g., someone is highly principled), it means a devotion to high codes or rules of conduct
  • Suttee - the Hindu custom of cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre

 

Chapter 20 Vocabulary

  • Series - a group of related things or events
  • Perspective - viewpoint
  • Queue - the braided pigtail that was traditionally worn by Chinese males
  • Porcelain - a ceramic material made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures
  • Clan - a group of related families
  • Daimyo - “great names”; heads of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection
  • Process - a series of actions or steps leading to an end
  • Community - a group of people with common interests and characteristics living together within a larger society
  • Hans - approximately 250 domains into which Japan was divided under the Tokugawa
  • Hostage system - a system used by the shogunate to control the daimyo in Tokugawa Japan; the family of a daimyo lord was forced to stay at their residence in the capitol whenever the lord was absent from it
  • Eta - Japan’s outcast class, whose way of life was strictly regulated by the Tokugawa
  • Isolationist - a policy of national isolation by abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations
  • Archipelago - a chain of islands
  • Network - an interrelated or interconnected group or system  
  • Mainland states - part of the continent, as distinguished from peninsulas or offshore islands
  • Bureaucracy - an administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures
  • Impose - to establish or apply

 

Chapter 21 Vocabulary

  • Philosopher - a person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment; a scholar or a thinker
  • Geocentric - Earth-centered; a system of planetary motion in which the sun, moon, and other planets revolve around the sun
  • Sphere - any of the concentric, revolving, spherical transparent shells in which, according to ancient astronomy, the stars, sun, planets, and moon are set
  • Heliocentric - sun-centered; the system of the universe in which the Earth and planets revolve around the sun
  • Universal law of gravitation - one of Newton’s three rules of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity  
  • Rationalism - a system of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge  
  • Scientific method - a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world
  • Inductive reasoning - the doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles
  • Philosophe - French for “philosopher”; applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment
  • Separation of powers - a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
  • Deism - an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
  • Laissez-faire - the concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone
  • Generation - a group of individuals born and living at the same time
  • Social contract - the concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community
  • Arbitrary - at one’s discretion; random
  • Salons - the elegant urban drawing rooms where, in the eighteenth century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials. And wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes
  • Rococo - an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730’s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm, and gentle action.
  • Enlightened absolutism - a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
  • Rigid - inflexible, unyielding
  • Successor - one that follows, especially one who takes over a throne, title, estate, or office
  • Eventually - in the end
  • Federal system - a form of government in which power is shared between the national and state governments
  • Amendment - an alteration proposed or effected by parliamentary or constitutional procedure
  • Guarantee - to assure fulfillment of a condition

 

Chapter 22 Vocabulary

  • Estate - one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution; the clergy(First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the townspeople (Third Estate)
  • Taille - an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
  • Consumer - one who consumes or uses economic goods
  • Bourgeoisie - the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
  • Exclusion - the act of excluding
  • Sans-culottes - “without breeches’; members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots (in other words, they wore long trousers instead of the knee-length breeches of the nobles)
  • Domestic - relating to or originating within one’s country
  • Percent - a part of a whole divided into 100 parts
  • Elector - an individual qualified to vote in an election
  • Coup d’etat - a sudden overthrow of the government
  • Consulate - government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, with Napoleon as first consul in control of the entire government
  • Capable -  having or showing ability
  • Liberal - broad-minded; associated with ideals of the individual, especially economic freedom and greater participation in government
  • Nationalism - the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
  • Conservation - a political and philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
  • Principle of intervention - idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
  • Liberalism - a political and philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties-the basic rights of all people-should be protected
  • Civil - involving the general public or civic affairs
  • Constitution - the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it

 

Chapter 23 Vocabulary

  • Labor - work performed by people that provides the goods or services in an economy
  • Capital - money available for investment
  • Entrepreneur - a person who finds new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
  • Cottage industry - a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes   
  • Puddling - the process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron
  • Derived - obtained from; came from
  • Industrial capitalism - an economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing
  • Socialism - a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
  • Radical - relating to a political group associated with views, practices, and politics of extreme change
  • Temporary - lasting for a limited time; not permanent
  • Universal male suffrage - the right of all male to vote in elections
  • Multinational empire - an empire in which people of many nationalities live
  • Unification - the act, process, or result of making into a coherent or coordinated whole; the state of being unified
  • Militarism - the reliance on military strength
  • Kaiser - German for “caesar’; the title of the emperors of the Second German Empire
  • Plebiscite - a popular vote
  • Regime - the government in power
  • Emancipation - the act of setting free
  • Abolitionism - a movement to end slavery
  • Creole - a person of European descent born in Latin America and living there permanently
  • Peninsulare - a person born on the Iberian Peninsula; typically, a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe
  • Mestizo - a person of mixed European and Native American Descent
  • Intervention - the involvement in a situation to alter the outcome
  • Caudillo - in post-revolutionary Latin America, a strong leader who ruled chiefly by military force, usually with the support of the landed elite
  • Erupt - to suddenly become active or violent
  • Cash crop - a crop that is grown for sale rather than for personal use
  • Romanticism - an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
  • Individuality - a total character that distinguishes an individual from others
  • Approach - the way or method in which one examines or studies an issue or a concept
  • Secularization - indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration
  • Natural selection - the principle that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others
  • Realism - a mid-nineteenth century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was

 

Chapter 24 Vocabulary

  • Assembly line - pioneered by Henry Ford in 1913, a manufacturing method that allowed much more efficient mass production of goods.
  • Mass production - production of goods in quantity usually by machinery
  • Transition - changeover; the move from one form, stage, or style to another
  • Bourgeoisie - the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
  • Proletariat - the working class
  • Revisionist - a Marxist who rejected the revolutionary approach, believing instead in evolution by democratic means to achieve the goal of socialism
  • Feminism - the movement for women’s rights
  • Advocate - to support; to speak in favor of
  • Suffrage - the right to vote
  • Ministerial responsibility - the idea that the prime minister is responsible to the popularly elected legislative body and not to the king or president
  • Duma - the Russian legislative assembly
  • Insecure - uncertain, shaky; not adequately covered or sustained
  • Controversy - a dispute or quarrel
  • Modernism - a movement in which writers and artists between 1870 and 1914 rebelled against the traditional literary and artistic styles that had dominated European cultural life since the Renaissance
  • Abstract - a style of art, emerging around 1910, that spoke directly to the soul and avoided visual reality by using only lines and color
  • Psychoanalysis - a method by which a therapist and patient probe deeply into the patient’s memory; by making the patient’s conscious mind aware of repressed thoughts, healing can take place
  • Social Darwinism - theory used by Western nations in the late nineteenth century to justify their dominance; it was based on Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection, “the survival of the fittest”, and applied to modern human activities
  • Intensity -  extreme degree of strength, force, energy, or feeling
  • Progrom - the organized massacre of a minority group, especially Jews
  • Zionism - an international movement originally for the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine, where ancient Israel was located, and later for the support of modern Israel

 

Chapter 25 Vocabulary

  • Imperialism - the extension of a nation’s power over other lands
  • Racism -  the belief that race determines a person’s traits and capabilities
  • Protectorate - a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
  • Exploit - to make use of meanly or unfairly for one’s own advantage
  • Indirect rule - a colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
  • Direct rule - colonial government in which local elites were removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the colonizing country
  • Export - to send a product or service for sale to another country
  • Annex - to incorporate into an existing political unit, such as a city or country
  • Uncharted -not mapped; unknown
  • Indigenous -  native to a region
  • Traditions - the established customs of a people
  • Sepoy - an Indian soldier hired by the British East India Company to protect the company’s interests in the region
  • Viceroy - a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch
  • Civil - involving the general public or civic affairs
  • Estate - a landed property usually with a large house
  • Dollar diplomacy - diplomacy that seeks to strengthen the power of a country or effect its purposes in foreign relations by the use of its financial resources
  • Whereas - although
  • Sector - a sociological, economic, or political subdivision of society

 

Chapter 26 Vocabulary

  • Highlighted - centered attention on
  • Extraterritoriality - living in a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not subject to the host country’s laws
  • Self-strengthening - a policy promoted by reformers toward the end of the Qing dynasty under which China would adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions
  • Spheres of influence - areas in which foreign powers have been granted exclusive rights and privileges, such as trading rights and mining privileges
  • Exclusive - limited to a single individual or group
  • Open Door policy - a policy, proposed by U.S. secretary of state John Hay in 1899, that stated all powers with spheres of influence in China would respect equal trading opportunities with China and not set tariffs giving an unfair advantage to the citizens of their own country
  • Indemnity - the payment for damages
  • Provincial - local; of or relating to a province
  • Phase - a part in the development cycle
  • Motive - a reason to take action
  • Commodities - agricultural, mined, and mass-produced marketable goods
  • Concession - a political compromise
  • Prefecture - in the Japanese Meiji Restoration, a territory governed by its former daimyo lord
  • Subsidy - government payment to encourage or protect a certain economic activity
  • Context - the circumstances surrounding a situation or event

 

Chapter 27 Vocabulary

  • Conscription - military draft
  • Military - relating to the armed forces or to soldiers, arms, or war
  • Complex - having many intricate parts
  • Mobilization - the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
  • Propaganda - ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
  • Trench warfare - fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire, as in
    World War I
  • War of attrition - a war based on wearing down the other side with constant attacks and heavy losses, such as World War I
  • Target - something or someone marked for attack
  • Unrestricted - having no restrictions or bounds
  • Total war - a war that involved the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefield
  • Planned economy - an economic system directed by government agencies
  • Soviets - Russian councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers
  • Revolution - a overthrow of government
  • Abdicate - to formally give up control of a country or state
  • War communism - in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under communist control
  • Psychological - mental; directed toward the will or mind
  • Armistice - a truce or an agreement to end fighting
  • Cooperation - a common effort
  • Reparation - a payment made to the victor by the vanquished to cover the costs of war
  • Mandate - a territory temporarily governed by another country on behalf of the League of Nations

 

Chapter 28 Vocabulary

  • Annual - yearly
  • Depression - a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment
  • Collective bargaining - the right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hours
  • Deficit spending - when a government pays out more money that it takes in through taxation and other revenues, thus going into debt
  • Appropriate - suitable or compatible; fitting
  • Surrealism - an artistic movement that seeks to depict the world of unconscious
  • Uncertainty principle - the idea put forth by Werner Heisenberg in 1927 that the behavior of subatomic particles is uncertain, suggesting that all of the physical laws governing the universe are based on uncertainty
  • Totalitarian state - a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens
  • Fascism - a political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler
  • Media - channels or systems of communication
  • Attitude - a mental position regarding a fact or state
  • Collectivization - a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government
  • Nazi - shortened form of the German Nazional, or the National Socialist German Workers’ Party; a member of such a party
  • Concentration camp - a camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions
  • Aryan - a term used to identify people speaking Indo-European languages; Nazis misused the term, treating it as a racial designation and identifying the Aryans with the ancient Greeks and Romans and twentieth-century Germans and Scandinavians
  • Require - to demand as being necessary
  • Prohibit - to prevent or to forbid

 

Chapter 29 Vocabulary

  • Legislature - an organized body that makes laws
  • Genocide - the deliberate mass murder or physical extinction of a particular racial, political, or cultural group
  • Ethnic cleansing - a policy of killing or forcibly removing an ethnic group from its lands; used by the Serbs against the Muslim minority in Bosnia
  • Element - a distinct group within a larger group
  • Caliphate - the office of the caliph
  • Volunteer - one who enters the military voluntarily
  • Compensation - payment
  • Pan-Africanism - the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries
  • Civil disobedience - refusal to obey laws that are considered to be unjust
  • Zaibatsu - in the Japanese economy, a large financial and industrial corporation
  • Cease - to come to an end
  • Eventually - in the end
  • Guerrilla tactics - the use of the unexpected maneuvers like sabotage and subterfuge to fight an enemy
  • Redistribution of wealth - the shifting of wealth from a rich minority to a poor majority
  • Investor - a person or entity that commits money to earn a financial return
  • Oligarchy - “the rule of the few’, a form of government in which a select group of people exercises control
  • Establish - to set up permanently; to found

 

Chapter 30 Vocabulary

  • Dominate - to influence or control
  • Violation - a disregard of rules or agreements
  • Demilitarized - elimination or prohibition of weapons, fortifications, and other military installments
  • Appeasement - satisfying reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability
  • Sanctions - restrictions intended to enforce international law
  • Blitzkrieg - German for “lightning war”, a swift and sudden military attack; used by the Germans during World War II
  • Resolve - determination; a fixed purpose
  • Isolationism - a policy of national isolation by abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations
  • Neutrality - refusal to take sides or become involved in wars between other nations
  • Involvement - a commitment or a connection to
  • Widespread - widely extended or spread out
  • Mobilization - the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
  • Kamikaze - Japanese for “divine wind”, a suicide mission in which young Japanese pilots intentionally flew their airplanes into U.S. fighting ships at sea
  • Blitz - the British term for the German air raids on British cities and towns during World War II
  • Circumstance -  state of affairs
  • Ethnic - relating to people who have common racial, religious, or cultural origins
  • Occupation - the military force occupying a country or the policies carried out by it
  • Genocide - the deliberate mass murder or physical extinction of a particular racial, political, or cultural group
  • Collaborator - a person who assists the enemy
  • Partisan -  a resistance fighter in World War II
  • Cold War - the period of political tension following World War II and ending with the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s
  • Ideological - based on a set of beliefs
  • Assure - to make certain of something; to guarantee

 

Chapter 31 Vocabulary

  • Liberate - to free
  • Satellite - a country that is economically and politically dependent on another country
  • Policy of containment - a plan to keep something, such as communism, within its existing geographical boundaries and prevent further aggressive moves
  • Arms race - building up armies and store of weapon to keep up with an enemy
  • Nuclear - being a weapon whose destructive power comes from a nuclear reaction
  • Deterrence - during the cold war, the U.S. and Soviet policies of holding huge arsenals of nuclear weapons to prevent war; each nation believed that neither would launch a nuclear attack since both knew that the other side could strike back with devastating power
  • Commune - in China during the 1950’s, a group of collective farms, which contained more than 30,000 people who lived and worked together
  • Final - the last in a series, process, or progress
  • Permanent revolution - an atmosphere of constant revolutionary fervor favored by Mao Zedong to enable China to overcome the past and achieve the final stage of communism
  • Source - a  document or primary reference book that gives information
  • Proxy war - a war in which the powers in conflict use third parties as substitutes instead of fighting each other directly
  • Temporary - lasting for a limited time; not permanent
  • Domino theory - idea that if one country falls to communism, neighboring countries will also fall
  • Emerge - to come into being through evolution

 

Chapter 32 Vocabulary

  • Principle of nonalignment - Jawaharlal Nuehru’s refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance
  • Transfer- to take over the control of
  • Role - a socially-expected behavior pattern
  • Discrimination - Prejudicial treatment usually based on race, religion, class, sex, or age
  • Issue - a vital or unsettled matter
  • Pan-Arabism -  Arab unity, regardless of national boundaries
  • Revenue - the yield of sources of income that a nation or state collects and deposits into its treasury for public use
  • Intifada - “Uprising”; militant movement that arose during the 1980’s among supporters of the Palestine Liberation Organization living in the West Bank and Gaza
  • Parallel - having the same direction or course; similar
  • Goal - an aim or a purpose
  • Apartheid - “apartness”, the system of racial segregation in South Africa from the 1950’s until 1991
  • Diverse - varied and not alike
  • Pan-Africanism - the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries
  • HIV/AIDS - human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; any of the strains of HIV-1 and HIV-2 that infect and destroy the immune system’s helper T cells causing a large drop in their numbers, and becomes AIDS when a person has 20 percent or less than the normal level of helper T cells
  • Theme - a subject or topic of artistic work
  • Consent - approval
  • Privatization - the sale of government-owned companies to private firms
  • Trade embargo - a policy prohibiting trade with a particular country
  • Target - something or someone marked for attack
  • Cartels - group of drug businesses
  • Megacity - a very large city
  • Magic realism - a form of expression unique to Latin American literature; it combines realist events with dreamlike or fantasy backgrounds

 

Chapter 33 Vocabulary

  • Shift - a change in direction
  • Welfare state - a state in which the government takes responsibility for providing citizens with services such as health care
  • Minimal - barely adequate
  • Bloc - a group of nations with a common purpose
  • Real wages - the actual purchasing power of income
  • Consumer society - a society preoccupied with buying goods
  • Women’s liberation movement - the renewed feminist movement of the late 1960’s, which demanded political and economic equality with men
  • Heavy industry - the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines
  • Enhanced - improved
  • Sole - being the only one
  • de-Stalinization - the process of eliminating Stalin’s more ruthless policies
  • Détente - a phase of relaxed tensions and improved relations between two adversaries
  • Dissident - a person who speaks out against the regime in power
  • Participation - having a part in o sharing in something
  • Occupied - held by a foreign power
  • Maintain - to keep in an existing state of repair or efficiency
  • State capitalism - an economic system in which the central government plays an active role in the economy, establishing price and wage policies and subsidizing vital industries
  • Stable -not changing or fluctuating; steady

 

Chapter 34 Vocabulary

  • Perestroika - fundamental restructuring of the Soviet economy; a policy introduced by Gorbachev
  • Glasnost - a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues
  • Demonstration - a public display of group feeling toward a person or cause
  • Collapse - to break down completely; to suddenly lose force or effectiveness
  • Ethnic cleansing - a policy of killing or forcibly removing an ethnic group from its lands; used by the serbs against the muslim minority in Bosnia
  • Autonomous - self-governing
  • Currency - coins, for example, that are in circulation and used as a medium of exchange
  • Symbol - something that stands for something else by the way of association; a visible sign of something invisible
  • Budget deficit - the state that exists when a government spends more than it collects in revenues
  • Postmodernism - an artistic movement that emerged in the 1980’s; its artists do not expect rationality in the world and are comfortable with many “truths”
  • Popular culture - entertainment created for profit and for a mass audience
  • Cultural imperialism - referring to Western nations’ control of the world cultures similar to how they had controlled colonial governments
  • Per capita - per person
  • Unify - to make into a unit or whole; unite
  • One child policy - China’s effort, beginning in 1979, to control population growth; incentives such as education benefits, child care, and housing are offered to couples who limit their families to one child
  • Sector - a sociological, economic, or political subdivision of society
  • Deflation - a contraction in the volume of available money or credit that results in a general decline in prices
  • Evolve - develop; work out
  • Jurisdiction - the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised
  • Evident - apparent
  • Corruption - impairment of integrity, virtue, or moral principle



Chapter 35 Vocabulary

  • Peacekeeping forces - military forces drawn from neutral members of the United Nations to settle conflicts and supervise truces
  • Chemical - used in or produced by chemistry
  • Nuclear proliferation - the spread of nuclear weapon production technology and knowledge to nations without that capability
  • Bioterrorism - the use of biological and chemical weapons in terrorist attacks
  • Drama - state of intense conflict
  • Arbitrarily - at one’s discretion; randomly
  • Pandemic - a widespread outbreak of a disease
  • Projection - an estimate or a calculation
  • Migration - the movement of people from one country, place, or locality to another
  • Nongovernmental organization - an organization that has no government ties and works to address world problems
  • Multinational corporation - a company with divisions in more than two countries
  • Currency - coins, for example, that are in circulation and used as a medium of exchange
  • Globalization - the movement toward a more interdependent world economy
  • Collateralized debt obligation - A security guaranteed by a pool of bonds, loans, and other type of debt
  • Subprime investments - Investments based on loans that have an interest rate that is higher than a prime rate and is extended especially to low-income borrowers
  • Dynamic - An activity or change that is continuous and productive
  • Microchip - Also called an integrated circuit; a tiny assembly of electronic components and their connections that is produced in or on a tiny bit of material usually silicon
  • Manipulation - Skillful or artful management
  • Intense - Marked by great zeal, energy, determination, or concentration
  • Ecology - The study of the relationships between living things and their environment
  • Deforestation - The clearing of forests
  • Desertification - Formation of degraded soil, turning semi-arid lands into nonproductive deserts
  • Greenhouse effect - Global warming caused by the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  • Sustainable development - Economic development that does not limit the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs

 

 

 

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